Efficiency and GHG standards: LDV

Historical and projected GHG and fuel efficiency standards for passenger cars normalized to CAFE standards (gCO2/km) by applicable vehicle types.

Source: ICCT research, please see the table below for further information.

Historical and projected GHG and fuel efficiency standards for light trucks and vans normalized to CAFE standards (gCO2/km) by applicable vehicle types.

GHG and fuel efficiency standards for light duty vehicles by applicable vehicle types.

Policy namePolicy statusRegulation summaryPublication datePCLCV
US EPA Revised 2023 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions StandardsAdoptedReducing fleet level emission for passenger cars and light trucks by 28% between 2022 and 2026 with annual targets. The baseline value for passenger cars in 2022 is 181 gCO2/mile and that for light trucks is 261 gCO2/mile. The test procedure is CAFÉ.2021YesYes
Canada Regulations Amending the Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission RegulationsAdoptedReducing fleet level emissions for passenger cars and light trucks by 30% between 2017 and 2025 with annual targets. The baseline value for passenger cars in 2022 is 221 gCO2/mile and that for light trucks is 312 gCO2/mile. The test procedure is CAFÉ.2014YesYes
European Union Proposed CO₂ emission performance standards for cars and vans (Fit for 55) - GHGProposedReducing fleet level emissions for passenger cars and vans by 100% in 2035. The base year is 2021. There are intermediate targets in 2025 (15% reduction from base year) and 2030 (55% reduction from base year). The baseline value for passenger cars in 2021 is 115 gCO2/km and that for light commercial vehicles is 176 gCO2/km. The test procedure is WLTP.2021YesYes
China Phase V Fuel Efficiency StandardAdoptedImproving fleet level fuel efficiency for passenger cars from 5.8 l/100 km in 2019 to 4 l/100 km in 2025 and 3.2 l/100 km in 2030. The test procedure is NEDC.2019YesNo
South Korea 2030 GHG StandardAdoptedReducing fleet level emissions for passenger cars and light trucks by 28% in 2030. The base year is 2020. The baseline value for passenger cars is 97 gCO2/km and that for light commercial vehicles is 166 gCO2/km. The test procedure is CAFÉ.2021YesYes
Japan Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy 2019 AmendmentAdoptedReducing fleet level emissions for passenger cars by 28% in 2030. The base year is 2018. The baseline value for passenger cars is 128 gCO2/km. The test procedure is WLTP.2019YesNo
New Zealand Clean Vehicle ActAdoptedReducing fleet level emission for passenger cars and light trucks by 63% between 2021 and 2027 with annual targets starting from 2023. The base year is 2021. The baseline value for passenger cars is 169 gCO2/km and that for light trucks is 244 gCO2/km. The test procedure is WLTP.2022YesYes
California Advanced Clean Car I (ACC I) GHG StandardAdoptedReducing fleet level emission for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles by 50% between 2008 and 2025 with annual targets starting from 2017. The reduction from 2017 to 2025 is 33%. The 2008 value for passenger cars is 291 gCO2/mile and that for light trucks is 396 gCO2/mile. The 2017 value for passenger cars is 213 gCO2/mile and that for light trucks is 290 gCO2/mile. The test procedure is CAFÉ. Other Section 177 states also follow this standard.2012YesYes