Phase-out targets: Buses

Verified on 5 December 2023

Phase Out Map

The map displays official phase-out targets set by national and sub-national governments to end the sale, registration, or procurement of medium- and heavy-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) buses. More than 27 governments have their own targets, in addition to 33 governments joining the Global HDV MoU.

Source: ICCT research; please see the table below for further information.

Table: Summary of ICE bus phaseout policies

Policy NamePolicy TypePolicy StatusPolicy SummaryPublication Year
EU CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehiclesphaseout goalproposed100% EV sales for city buses by 20302023
US EPA Phase III GHG Standards for HDV: ZEV projectionsphaseout goalproposedNew ZEV sales of: Vocational vehicles and buses - 50% by 2032 (starting from 20% in 2027), Short-haul tractors - 35% by 2032 (10% in 2027), Long-haul tractors - 25% by 2032 (first intermediate target: 10% in 2030)2023
Government of Tamil Nadu Electric Vehicles PolicyZEV fleet ruleproposed30% of public transit bus stock to be electric by 20302023
Ireland Climate Action Plan 2023 phaseout goaladopted100% EV share of new passenger car sales by 2030; 845,000 passenger car EV stock target by 2030; 30% share of new zero-emission heavy duty vehicle sales by 2030; 1,500 EV public service obligation buses by 20302023
US Multistate NESCAUM MOUphaseout goalproposed30% ZEV share of HDV sales by 2030 and 100% by 2050. Applicable to: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Quebec, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and the District of Columbia2022
Israel Public Bus Purchase SchemeZEV fleet ruleadopted100% ZEV share of public transit bus sales by 2026; 30% by 2024, 50% by 20252022
United Kingdom Ending sales of new, non-zero emission buses and calls for evidence on coaches and minibusesphaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of bus sales by 20322022
Shanghai EV Bus 2025 Target (2021)phaseout goalproposed96% of all buses and all new coaches to be new energy or clean energy vehicles by 2025.2022
14th Five-Year Plan for Ecological Environmental Protection in Tianjinphaseout goaladopted25% of new passenger LDV sales to be NEVs. 80% NEVs in public transport, rental, logistics and delivery vehicles sales by 2025.2022
Chandigarh Draft Electric Vehicle Policy, 2022phaseout goalproposed50% of passenger vehicle sales and 100% of commercial vehicle sales are electric within 5 years.2022
Haryana Electric Vehicle Policy Draft phaseout goalproposed100% of state-owned bus stock to be electric buses by 2029. 100% ZEV commercial and logistic vehicles stock by 2030. 100% of government vehicles stock to electric cars by 2024.2022
China MEE EV Policyphaseout goalproposed50% share of EV sales for all vehicles by 2030 across "key polluting regions"2022
Ghana National Electric Mobility Roadmapphaseout goalproposed4%, 16%, and 32% of cars and buses sold to be EVs in 2025, 2030, and 2050 respectively; 2022
Zero Emissions Government Fleet Declaration ZEV fleet ruleproposedThe pledge goal is 100% zero-emission LDV acquisitions of civil government owned and operated fleet with aspirations for 100% zero-emission M/HDV acquisitions, by no later than 2035. 2022
Mexico National Electromobility Strategyphaseout goalproposed100% EV share of all vehicle sales by 2050; 5% by 2030, 50% by 20402021
Austria Mobility Master Planphaseout goalproposed100% EV share of: LDV sales by 2030, bus sales by 2032, MDT sales by 2030, and HDT sales by 20352021
Chile National Electromobility Strategyphaseout goaladopted100% ZEV share of LDV and public transit bus sales by 2035; All HDV sales to be ZEVs by 2045; 40% share of EVs in passenger LDV stock by 2050.2021
Hungary National Energy Strategy 2030phaseout goalproposed1,290 ZEV public transit bus stock by 2029; 100% sales from 20222021
Poland Energy Policy Until 2040phaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of public transit bus sales by 20302021
Norway National Transport Plan 2022-2033phaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of LDV sales and 75% ZEV and biogas share of public transit bus sales by 2025; 75% ZEV share of coach bus sales and 50% ZEV share of MDT and HDT sales by 20302021
New Zealand Public Transport DecarbonizationZEV fleet ruleproposed100% ZEV share of public transit bus sales by 2025 and stock by 20352021
US Build Back Better Actphaseout goalproposed50% EV share of LDV sales by 2030. Also ZEV sales of 100,000 school buses; 50,000 transit buses; 645,000 government LCV, MDT, and HDT combined by 2030. 100% Sales of Federal Government HDVs by 2035 and LDVs by 2027.2021
China 14th Five-Year Development Plan for Green Transportationphaseout goaladopted72% share of NEVs in national urban public transport and 20% in logistics distribution by 20252021
Beijing Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Implementation Plan (2021-2025)phaseout goaladopted10,000 FCEVs stock by 20252021
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 14th Five-Year Planphaseout goalproposed15% of new passenger LDV sales to be NEVs and 45% of new buses by 2025. 100% of government vehicles to be NEVs by 2025.2021
Global HDV MOUphaseout goalproposed30% share of ZEV HDV sales by 2030 and 100% by 2040. Signed by the following national governments: Austria, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, USA, Croatia, Belgium, Lithuania, Dominican Republic, and United Kingdom (including Scotland and Wales separately), Uruguay2021
Thailand Study on Electric Vehiclesphaseout goalproposed100% share of ZEVs in new car sales by 2035. 30% share of ZEVs in domestic LDV production by 2030, 50% by 2035. 35% share of ZEVs in domestic bus production by 2025, 50% by 2030 and 85% by 2035.2021
Canadian 2030 Emissions Reduction Planphaseout goaladopted35% ZEV M/HDV sales by 2030, 100% by 2040 (for a subset of vehicle types based on feasibility).2021
Canadian Zero Emission Transit Fundphaseout goalproposedpurchase 5 000 ZEV public transit and school buses in the period to 2026.2021
Netherlands National Climate Agreementphaseout goaladopted15,000 FCEV PC stock by 2025 and 300,000 by 2030; 50% ZEV share of taxi sales by 2025; 3,000 FCEV HDV stock by 20252020
China New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)phaseout goalproposed20% EV share of all vehicle sales by 20252020
Delhi Electric Vehicles Policy 2020phaseout goalproposed25% ZEV share of all vehicle sales by 20242020
China National Development and Reform Commission of the Ministry of Transport on Issuing the Action Plan for Creating Green Travel (Green Mobility Action Plan)ZEV fleet ruleproposed100% ZEV share of public transit bus stock by 2035; 80% sales by 20252020
Assessment of Electric Mobility Targets for Nepal's 2020 NDCphaseout goaladopted25% share of EVs in private passenger vehicle sales (including two-wheelers) and 20% in four-wheel (i.e., buses and taxis) public passenger vehicle sales by 2025. 90% share of EVs in private passenger vehicle sales (including two-wheelers) and 60% in four-wheel (i.e., buses and taxis) public passenger vehicle sales by 2030.2020
Germany Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technology Collaboration Programmephaseout goalproposed50% share of electric urban buses by 2030.2020
Quebec Electrification Policy Framework phaseout goaladopted100% share of EV public transport bus sales by 2025. 55% of city buses and 65% of school buses are electrified by 2030. 100% share of government cars, SUVs, vans and minivans and 25% of pickup trucks are electrified by 2030. 40% share of taxi stock is electric by 20302020
California Innovative Clean Transit (ICT) regulationZEV fleet rulein force100% ZEV share of transit bus stock by 2040; 100% ZEV share of transit bus sales by 2029; Large transit agencies: 25% ZEV share of transit bus sales by 2023 and 50% by 2026; Small transit agencies: 25% ZEV share of transit bus sales by 2026.2019
Colombia Law No. 1964 to promote electric vehiclesZEV fleet rulein force100% ZEV share of public transit bus sales by 2035; 10% by 2025; 20% by 2027; 40% by 2029; 60% by 2031; 80% by 20332019
Costa Rica National Decarbonization Planphaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of LDV sales, 60% ZEV share of LDV stock, and 100% ZEV share of bus and taxi stock by 2050; 25% ZEV share of LDV stock and 70% ZEV share of bus and taxi stock by 20352019
European Union Clean Vehicles DirectiveZEV fleet rulein forceEV public procurement targets are differentiated by member state: 17.6% to 38.5% EV share of LDV sales by 2025; 6% to 10% ZEV share of MDT and HDV sales by 2025 and 7% to 15% by 2030; 24% to 45% ZEV share of bus sales by 2025 and 33% to 65% by 2030.2019
France Hydrogen Roadmap and Industrial Developmentphaseout goalproposed5,000 FCEV LDV stock by 2023 and 20,000 to 50,000 by 2028; 200 FCEV HDV stock by 2023 and 2,000 by 20282019
Italy Integrated National Energy and Climate Planphaseout goalproposed85% EV share of government LDV and HDV sales by 2030; 30% by 2022 and 50% by 20252019
Netherlands Mission Zero phaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of public transit bus sales by 2025; 100% stock by 20302019
Spain Integrated National Energy and Climate Change Plan 2021-2030phaseout goalproposed5 million EV stock by 20302019
Cabo Verde Electric Mobility Policy Charter phaseout goalproposed100% EV sales share for government vehicles by 2025, taxis by 2030, and private PCs and HDVs by 2035. Sets interim EV sales share targets for 2025 and 2030 and a target of 100% EV stock by 2050.2019
Hainan’s Clean Energy Vehicle Development Plan phaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of: taxi stock by 2020, coach bus sales by 2024, public transit bus sales by 2025, ridesharing/rental cars/LCV stock by 2030, and private car sales by 2030; 50% ZEV share of sanitation truck sales by 20302019
India FAME II phaseout goaladopted55,000 ZEV PC sales and 7,000 ZEV bus sales by 20222019
Pakistan National Electric Vehicles Policy phaseout goalproposed90% EV share of all vehicle sales by 20402019
Singapore Land Transport Master Planphaseout goalproposed100% EV share of public transit bus and taxi stock by 20402019
South Korea Hydrogen Economy Roadmapphaseout goalproposed6,200,000 FCEV PC sales (including 2,900,000 domestic sales), 80,000 FCEV taxi stock, and 70,000 FCEV HDV stock by 20402019
Finland Roadmap for Fossil-free Transportphaseout goalproposed745,000 ZEV LDV stock (700,000 PC and rest LCV) and 4,600 ZEV HDV stock by 20302019
Japan Strategy for Developing Hydrogen and Fuel-Cell Technologiesphaseout goaladopted1200 fuel cell urban bus stock by 2030.2019
Colombia National Strategy for Electric Mobilityphaseout goalproposed600 000 EV stock across all modes (LDV, MC, bus, MDV) by 2030.2019
Ecuador Organic Law on Energy Efficiency (Ley Orgánica de Eficiencia Energética)phaseout goalproposed100% of the public transport fleet is electric by 2025.2019
Panama National Electric Mobility Strategyphaseout goaladopted25 - 40% share of EVs in private vehicle sales by 2030; 10 - 20% of EVs in private vehicle fleet, 15 - 35% of buses; 25 - 50% of public vehicle fleets by 2030.2019
Denmark Climate and Air Planphaseout goalproposed100% ZEV share of public transit bus sales by 2025 and stock by 2030; 100% EV share of PC sales by 2030; 100% ZEV share of LDV sales by 20352018
Sri Lanka Blue-Green Economyphaseout goalproposed100% of LDVs to be electrified by 2040. All state-owned vehicles to be electric by 2025 (across all modes).2018
Green Master Technology Plan Malaysia 2017-2030phaseout goalproposed100% (electrified, CNG, LPG or biofuel-fuelled vehicle) LDV stock for all private transport by 2030 and 40% in public transport (HDV and LDV).2017

The table contains additional phaseout policies compared to those in the map, including firm regulations.